ties.network

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ties.network is a business platform with an integrated public noSql database (TIES DB) designed to find partners, establish professional relationships and transact secure business deals.

Alexander Neymark

Founder, CEO

Dmitry Kochin

Founder, CTO, PhD

Anton Filatov

Head of Software Development

Natalia Tokar

Business Development Partner

Advisors

John Doe

Aaron Schwartz

Advisor. Education and Science
John Doe

Marcel Schlatter

Technical advisor
John Doe

Wulf Kaal

Advisor. PR and Social Outreach
John Doe

Juan Garcia Morgado

Advisor. Legal and Consulting (Europe)
John Doe

Ian M. Worrall

Advosor, Finance and Security

Website

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White Papper

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Social Media Ststistics.

In Crypto, community matters
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Joined May 2010

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Whitepaper

1.1 Abstract

Modern technologies allow us to rediscover the issues of decentralization and freedom for millions of people. The surge of interest in cryptocurrencies and decentralized economy is a direct proof of people's disappointment in the classical system of commodity-money relations and professional networking, and their attempt to escape into the counter-economy. This document presents the Ties.Network project - a new “LinkedIn” for crypto-community, a distributed business platform that allows traders, investors, developers, consultants and enthusiasts to find business partners, offer their services, close deals based on smart contracts, hire staff, advertise their own services in a comfortable and secure environment, and also finance projects (individually or as a part of a particular community). The platform allows you to get maximum exposure to the crypto-community through a system of ratings and reviews. It also allows you to act anonymously while keeping transactions with other community members safe. Ties.Network satisfies the need of crypto-community to connect and the need to secure P2P business transactions in a new counter-economy. Today the community is fragmented and connections are fragile for two reasons. It’s still a new market (though it’s growing rapidly), and because it is so new, it is hard to find professionals one can immediately trust and strike a deal with. Ties.Network aims at resolving the issue of trust for crypto-community on a fundamental level by giving people opportunities to find each other and do business in a new, yet safe environment in accordance with the principles of decentralized economy. The platform utilizes a system of ‘geniune rating’, which means only those, who actually did business with a user have a right to rate them as professionals - thus basing their reviews on real successful business transactions, and not assumptions or marketing information. This means that reviews can not be fake, and that the platform will become a credible, solid source of information about viable blockchain-related projects globally, decentralized technologies, real due diligence reports on upcoming token generation events, and will give voice to real blockchain experts who have a track record of successful deals. Using Ties.Network people can connect and strike business deals via smart-contracts, launch projects, promote their businesses, find projects to invest in, and groups to join. Additionally, such platform would help in recruiting collaborators, posting jobs as well as CVs with all parties profiting from these features. Currently, there is no platform providing this array of services. It is time to introduce a large scale public network based on blockchain technology that would include a decentralized ledger for business and social networking purposes. This will allow the crypto-community to have access to a single, universal and public platform that allows cooperation and gives opportunities to discuss and strike business deals in the same environment.

1.2. What is Ties.Network?

As a business tool Ties.Network is a decentralized social platform where business professionals can connect and strike business deals via smart-contracts in no time. The platform uses a trustworthy rating system, thus making sure all participants can focus solely on business and benefits of beneficial relationships, and leave the verification and trust issues to the platform’s integrated solutions. As an IT product, Ties.Network is based on TiesDB – a public, decentralized, and distributed noSQL database that allows to store huge amounts of dynamic data, and search within the content of the files. TiesDB is a public, open-source solution that can be utilized by other dApps and decentralized blockchain-related projects to facilitate their entering the market and structure large amounts of data. Ties.Network is the analogy of LinkedIn for the crypto-community. It is a decentralized platform for traders, investors, developers, consultants and enthusiasts that allows to find and hire partners, employees and volunteers, sell their products or services, secure business deals via smart contracts, promote themselves, and finance their projects, among other items. People can work individually or as teams to accomplish their objectives. Free rating and reviews (“crowdsourcing”) give each participant maximum PR opportunities, while also giving them the option of anonymity. In all cases, all transactions are 100% safe and secure. At registration, each user receives a default rating based on objective observations of user activity in the crypto-community and based on provided documents. The community will modify this rating based on the review of the deals that have already been processed on the platform though impartial and decentralized voting.

1.2.1 Key abilities of the platform

Ties.Network (see chapter 3) integration of smart contracts into a business platform lets its users do the following:
Trade goods and services
Trade cryptocurrencies
Hire and recruit specialists
Participate in token generation events and blockchain projects
Receive feedback for startups or token generation events
Promote token generation events and network with startups

1.2.2 The concept of a public noSql database

For the last few years the blockchain community has been rapidly growing. Today blockchain not only gives people the opportunity to make safe financial transactions, but also provides a broad range of other services. Smart contracts have become a big breakthrough in this field. Smart contract is a program that is executed in the blockchain core allowing flexible custom processing of each transaction. Smart contracts in Ethereum [2] are Turing-complete and allow programming algorithms of any complexity. That is why Ethereum has created a new market of decentralized applications – applications that are running directly on the blockchain inheriting its distribution, decentralization and security as well. However, this market growth is restrained by the absence of an appropriate data storage. Serious applications require large and fast data storage and should be able to perform complex search within the files. We faced it ourselves while designing the architecture of Ties.Network. There are some implementations of decentralized data storages such as IPFS (4.9.3), cloud file storages (4.9.4) or special blockchains (4.9.6). But all of them have significant disadvantage - they do not allow complex search within the stored data. There are also distributed databases (4.9.5), and they have all the required features except the main one - Byzantine Proof Tolerance (4.9.1). So they can not be used in public untrusted environment.

The Byzantine problem is an experiment meant to illustrate the pitfalls and design challenges of attempting to coordinate an action by communicating over an unreliable link, where failures of communication are possible. With that in mind, Ties.Network programmers developed a resilient public decentralized noSql database, TiesDB, that can be built in any blockchain with smart contracts; it supports replication, sharding, secondary indexes, full-text search and allows users to modify and delete data. The database is public in the sense that anyone can establish a TiesDB node and participate in the network processing user transactions and earn money from this. Equally, anyone can use it for storing data.

At the same time, TiesDB maintains the same powerful processing system and speed that you find in private (intra-corporate) noSql databases. Since TiesDB can be made compatible with any blockchain that supports Turing-complete smart contracts, members can use it to perform transactions on any platform. Learn more here (chapter 4.4).

2. Applications

2.1 Business contracts
Ties.Network can be used to make the following business contracts (inside or outside of the crypto-community): Outsourcing jobs (e.g., programming, white paper submission, translation, design, advisorship etc.), where terms and conditions are regulated by smart contract automation. Engaging in freelancing, temporary or contract work, where smart contracts regulate project terms and details. Obtaining feedback from experts on the platform.

2.1.1 Making connections
The user uses keywords to find profiles of potential employers or business connections.
Both parties discuss and negotiate the deal.
The user finalizes the deal by depositing the agreed-upon number of tokens in the smart contract wallet, which acts as guarantor of the deal. If either party reneges, tokens are returned. After the service or trade has been performed, the smart contract wallet deposits the tokens to the recipient (or client) as contracted.
System moderators act as per-diem arbitrators and use the contract terms to settle disputes, when and if necessary.
Moderators (chapter 5) are rewarded by the company since they need a financial incentive to regulate the blockchain ledger and supervise its dealings.

2.2 Starting a new project
Any user can upload their project, organization details or profile on Ties.Network. The platform can be used to recruit members of the project team, to create a project wallet to pay team members, or to receive donations. Additionally, users can negotiate terms of the deal and share documents and photos to members of the community Users can add the following information to the profile of the project:
the project head’s resume and their biographical summary
their contact information
links to their website and/or blog
information on past employment, books published, past projects, portfolio, etc.
You can also use the platform to share your project with selected individuals or organizations and block those you wish to exclude. When you start your own project, you can invite your own team members, set up a wallet for the project to pay relevant participants and receive donations, and share documents and photos to the members of your community (or to the public) among other items. Ties.Network uses a smart-contract automated platform, based on Ethereum, where transactions are encoded on its ledger, and where conditions are automatically executed once contract terms are met. Users use this function for investing, voting, fundraising, and crowdfunding

2.3 The expert community
The platform vets all parties, records and authenticates all transactions that use the platform, rejecting illegitimate or questionable data. Expert members of Ties.Network can also be requested to provide feedback on your project or enterprise, if you want them to. The level of anonymity is optional to the users. The option to remain anonymous makes it a safe environment for anyone to warn investors of funding a scam, to warn participants of illegitimate organizations, to caution someone against hiring a certain contractor or accepting a certain job. The expert community can use this platform to provide professional feedback regarding issues discussed on the platform or point out the limitations, or deficiencies, of any particular transaction.

2.4 What Ties.Network can do for you:
Help you engage in economic trade with entities from any country.
Provide a real-time transparent platform for conducting trade. Benefits include: rating businesses, smart contracts technology, locked-in funds that are only released when the contract is fulfilled. Provide security: all transactions can be witnessed and monitored by qualified experts who intervene to resolve conflicts should you wish so.
Provide you with an extensive network of highly-professional members of crypto-community, connected to the blockchain industry, crypto economics, and IT.
Give you a flexible platform to expand your network of professional connections and search for specialists in completely different areas Give transparency to the outsourcing process.
Give openness and scalability with a technically unlimited basic protocol that can handle a growing amount of storage, and has the potential to be enlarged to accommodate membership growth.

3. Ties.Network Aspects

3.1.1 Profile
The profile serves as a single entry point for the user to the community. Registration denotes agreement with community rules and is completed by opening a wallet that contains TIE currency (Ties.Network platform tokens) (chapter 6). The keys to the wallet are attached to user’s profile. There is an option to use/restore the wallet from multiple devices. When filling out the profile, the user allocates the degree of anonymity that he or she wants. Even if the user selects total anonymity, platform mediators can still investigate and regulate user conduct (through geography, personal data, photos containing personal information, stylistics, spelling and punctuation of texts, etc.) to maintain platform trust. Further, the platform gives a user a crowd-sourced rating, implements a review system and allows advertisers to place and manage ads.

3.1.1.1 Your profile
Your profile is a page that describes your career history, education, and other related content that you may want to publish.
The user information includes:
Name and surname
Date of birth
Contact information
Current occupation or position
A professional headshot
Skills and experiences
Business ads
Keywords to be included in the search
A rating and review form (which can be filled out by other users based on previous business transactions), as well as advertising form for their goods and services.
Chat – This refers to communication between the users in real-time. All messaging history in the chats is stored client-side (mobile/desktop) and encrypted using an end-to-end protocol. The content of the chats (photos, videos, files) is also encrypted and stored in the same manner.

3.1.2 Deals
This refers to an agreement that two or more parties enter for their mutual benefit onTies.Network. In our case, a “deal” denotes the economic exchange of TIE tokens for some products, goods, services or currencies of any form. It also implies investing in startups, projects and participating in token generation events.

3.1.2.1 Invoice
A list of goods sent or services provided, with a statement of the sum due for these. In reference to Ties.Network:
A user named A contracts a deal with party B to complete a job or a service. B then presents A with a form that proves the job/service was completed and requests payment.
A accepts the invoice and pays B with TIE currency.

3.1.2.2 Escrow and disputes
Payment is transferred to a smart contract escrow, which is only released when the results of the transaction are accepted by all parties involved. When and only if necessary, Ties.Network arbitrators would intervene to resolve disputes (for further information see further “Self-organization and motivation”).

3.1.2.3 Cryptocurrency and fiat currency exchange for TIE tokens
The essence of the platform indicates trade and exchange, give and take, and purchase and sale with TIE tokens. The platform will allow P2P exchange of TIE token to other currencies and fiat money.

3.1.3 Search results
Users can search profiles of wanted employers, services, organizations, individuals, and the like. The search results are presented as a list with filters (e.g., individuals, projects, connections, ratings).

3.1.4 Project
A project on Ties.Network is an instrument for users’ collaboration within a certain industry allowing users to discuss/share their ideas, make P2P financial transactions between the project team members and collect finance from other users of the platform.

3.1.4.1 Basic attributes of a project:
The existence of a project owner (public or anonymous).
The existence of a project moderator (role within the project).
The existence of multiple signature owners of the project wallet.
The existence of a solid idea and a project description.
Possibility of creating a short name for the project to promote it outside the network.
Possibility of creating public and private projects.
Possibility of creating temporary or permanent projects.
Possibility of publishing project materials (photos, videos, documents, text, comments).
Possibility of discussing project materials.
Possibility of shutting down the project.
Possibility of adding new people to the project and creating a channel for entry.
Instruments of collaborative financing of the project (fund raising in the project’s wallet).
Possibility of creating derivatives for funding different parts of the project.

3.2 Work process example
Access to the platform is provided via a mobile client (Android, iOS, Windows Phone) as well as desktop versions of the platform for all main operating systems (Windows, MacOS, Linux). The registration process involves setting-up a wallet (personal or public with signatures) and an account (with or without personal data).

The user chooses a certain industry/field and either creates a project or joins an existing one for discussion, participation or investment purposes.
The platform helps find contacts or clients, conduct deals and issue invoices.
Users buy TIE (the token used for deals and invoices) through a simplified registration process.
TIE wallets are available for instant P2P transactions using Internet payments or for paying in person (using NFC or QR codes).
TIE can be traded for either fiat currency or other cryptocurrencies on the platform’s exchange or an outside exchange.

3.3 Economics
Ties.Network platform does not take a commission from money received from goods or services, nor does it take a share of any project. Instead, Ties.Network imposes taxes and commissions on services to repay moderators and maintain its service.

3.3.1 Platform revenue sources
Ties.Network gains its revenue from the following proceeds:
Advertising (self-advertising by the platform users)
Escrow tax
Currency exchange
Each of these proceeds will be used to pay moderators and ensure optimum platform efficacy (for further information see “self-organization and motivation”). 3.3.2 Revenue sources for nodes
Ties DB gains its revenue from the following sources:
Storing content on the node server
Retrieving content from the node server

When the user places the content in the database on the node server, he or she pays the node's service fee for storing and processing content. The system does not only motivate node owners to utilize the process, but also prevents attackers from littering the database. Later the platform refunds user expenses in case users show no signs of malicious activity and there is no collusion between the participant and the node (for further information see further “Self-organization and motivation”). User costs for storage as well as for content retrieval come from the platform budget.

4. Ties.Network architecture

4.1 Architecture features
Ties.Network, as a platform suitable for striking business deals, conforms to the following requirements:
Decentralization. The Ties.Network platform represents a decentralized network of servers (nodes). Client applications connect to nodes within the network. At the heart of each TiNode is the blockchain that fosters decentralization. At the moment, various blockchain versions can be used for Ties.Network. Ethereum [2] will be used for the initial stage but we can transfer to another blockchain with smart contracts, for example, RChain [3], if necessary, to meet network growth and other requirements such as scaling and speed, if Ethereum cannot address scalability issues.

Stability. The platform is resistant to malicious activity of the participants (stability to Sybil attacks, the Byzantine Generals Problem, etc.). Blockchain intrinsically resists the malicious behavior of individual network members. However, if there is something else besides the blockchain in the system, additional efforts are required to ensure sustainability. We will return to this issue when we consider data storage (chapter 4.4).

Anonymity of individual servers and users, as well as privacy of communications between servers and users. Traditionally, IP masking and traffic encryption methods such as TOR [4] or I2P [5] have been used to provide anonymity and privacy for both platform clients and individual nodes by hiding their IP address. However, these methods are too slow and server-synchronized data require far more powerful speed processing. To resolve the issue, we use a Hyperboria mesh network [6] that uses the cjdns protocol [7].

Storage of data. The ability to store data and conduct a search through a large amount of structured data.
Scalability. The capability of the platform to handle a growing amount of work in order to accommodate member growth.
Open-source. All platform components have open-source code and are published with an open license.
Publicity. Anyone can join the network support system by installing the open software of the system.
Profitability. Users can profit from the platform.
Speed. The platform includes fast processing to achieve real-time computation and overcome the lag caused by current cloud-based models.
Expansion possibilities. The platform supports third-party applications (dapps) and provides a new model for building successful and massively scalable applications.



4.2 Architecture layers
At high-level we can distinguish the following layers of the platform.
TiClient - client application
TiesDB - public decentralized database
Smart contracts
Blockchain
Hyperboria Network
Users interact with Ties.Network with client application TiClient. TiClient connects to TiesDB and blockchain. TiesDB is used to store and retrieve user data. TiClient and TiesDB use smart contracts on blockchain for financial transactions and to ensure stability of critical operations. All the nodes are connected through Hyperboria network to provide speed, anonymity and end-to-end encryption of all communications.

4.3 Data storage
Ties.Network deals with a large amount of data, so we must choose the right place to store it. The distributed data repository should be made available for applications running on top of the blockchain with the following qualities:
Distribution
Publicity
Resistance to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem and other forms of attacks in a public network
Sharding support (the ability to replicate only a part of the data on each node in order to increase data storage capacity)
Speed
Ability to store structured data
Ability to delete data
The problem is that there is no implementation currently available that meets all these requirements. There are some decentralized file storages but they have drawbacks. The main one is that no solution provides tools for searching the files by their content, which is critical for most applications. We will overview current solutions in chapter 4.9 and underline their limitations. And in the next chapter we are presenting our own universal solution for decentralized structured data storage - TiesDB.

4.4 TiesDB
4.4.1 TiesDB: Overview
There are many implementations of distributed databases that meet all the above requirements except one - Bysantine Fault Tolerance (see 4.9.5). Therefore, they can not be public. So we propose TiesDB, which brings BFT to noSQL distributed databases and preserves their other qualities.

TiesDB is a new-generation decentralized database with the following innovative interfaces:
Distribution
TiesDB supports an unlimited number of replicas, each of which can be a coordinator (see 4.4.4). By requesting any one of them, the user gets access to all data.

Publicity
TiesDB is created for operation in the public sphere. New nodes can be added to the network and will take on part of the load at any time. Resistance to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem and other types of attacks in a public network All data placed in TiesDB is signed by owner (see 4.4.2), so nodes cannot arbitrarily change the data, nor can they corrupt data when replicating other nodes. Attempts to substitute are immediately detected through changes in the electronic signature. Any participant who does so, or attempts to do so, will be instantly removed from the network. External blockchain (for TiesDB) is used for TIE deposits, setting access rights and mutual settlements between the nodes.

Sharding support
Each node is responsible for storing a certain range of primary data keys. Data replication has scalability, so it can grow with the network.

Speed
Due to the data storage principles (see 4.4.2), the read/write speed in TiesDB will be almost identical to similar private databases, such as Apache Cassandra.

Ability to store structured data
Data stored on Ties.Network complements its platform. It can be a JSON document with a structure, which is useful for a particular applications. Ability to delete data Data deletion is supported in TiesDB. Although instant data deletion cannot be guaranteed, data will be deleted if the nodes act non-maliciously. A malicious node can never delete the data however it can not store everything, since only certain primary key intervals can be forwarded to it. Query language with an ability to conduct search using more than the primary key We use secondary indexes similar to integration methods of ElasticSearch with Cassandra in the Elassandra project, that allow secondary key search as well as a full-text search.

In addition to the Ties.Network project, TiesDB can also be used for other projects. It relies on a blockchain, which supports Turing-complete smart contracts. Therefore, it can be used for other distributed blockchains like Ethereum, RChain, and others.

4.4.2 TiesDB: Data organization principles
Since the database needs to satisfy a wide range of blockchain applications, be flexible for rapid processing power, be resistant to the malicious behavior of other DB nodes, provide a sufficient level of replication, and have mechanisms to motivate participants to support the network, the DB is designed with the following properties: The database is public, the user (client) of the database is identified by its public key. The public key is the user ID. Each user can send transactions to the database. And each transaction must be signed by this user. The new owner-signed record is created by the user.

Only the owner (or the user for whom the trust is installed through the permissions mechanism implemented as a smart contract on the blockchain) can change the record after creation.

Everybody can read all the records.
Every unique user identification code creates separate records.
More complex permissions can be installed using a smart contract in the blockchain (for example, trust between specific users, rights to create or delete tables, etc.).

All permissions must be checked for transactions and replications.
The mandatory cryptographic signature of each record ensures that no record can be changed or removed by a malicious party without knowing the private key. Data storage remains resilient to the Byzantine Generals’ Problem attack, even without a consensus mechanism while speed remains the same as that of noSql databases.

On the other hand, an attacker can generate a Sybil attack, where a single adversary controls multiple nodes on a network, as it is unknown to the network that the nodes are controlled by the same adversarial entity. We can solve this issue with “motivation” or our incentive system.

4.4.3 TiesDB Incentive System
A public network is a type of network where anyone has access and can connect to other networks or the Internet. Incentives are usually given to motivate participants and to encourage ethical participation.

TiesDB similar to Ethereum Swarm [26] offers the following incentives:
Reward for data extraction
Reward for data storage
Rewards are allocated from the funds of the user who makes inquiries. Since payments through the blockchain are slow, two methods can be used for fast payments: off-chain transactions and “chequebooks.” In off-chain transactions, the user needs to create an off-chain channel with each node of the database, or use intermediate channels between nodes. Since such channel requires its own funding repository, such an approach can be very expensive, so the "chequebook" approach is preferred. Before accessing the database, the user deposits part of their funds in a smart contract - "chequebook", and funds can be used as payment or reward. The chequebook contract assumes the following:

● The contract monitors the total amount issued to each recipient at the time of the connection.
● When sending a cheque, the owner must memorize the total amount sent to each recipient.

A cheque is cashed if:
● The address of the contract corresponds to the address on the cheque.
● The cheque is signed by the owner (user ID - public key).
● The total amount on the cheque is larger than the amount in the previous cheque given to the same recipient.
Participants use “cheques” to reward nodes. The recipient node can only save the last received cheque from each user and he cashes it by depositing it in the "chequebook.”

4.4.4 Reward for data extraction
The data on the DB nodes has a certain level of replication. Specifically, the data with a specific key is stored only on a part of the nodes, for example, on N of them. However, the user can refer to any node for the data, which then acts as a "coordinator.” On a user request the coordinator determines these N nodes by the data keys and routes the request to them. The data returned by the nodes is checked by the coordinator for compliance with electronic signatures and compared to the timestamp, after which the most recent record is returned to the user.

For this to work, the incentive has to fulfill the following conditions:
Faster nodes receive more payment.
Nodes that return old data would receive less payment.
Delinquent nodes (that fail to return the data at all) receive no payment.
The coordinator receives a fixed fee.
The coordinator issues an invoice with the data, which includes information on the nodes used. Later, the user writes a cheque for each. Then, the coordinator sends the cheques to the nodes. It also sends the update of the data to nodes that failed to return valid data.

To protect against malicious coordinators and delinquent users, each node maintains a list of users from which it expects payment. If the debt level exceeds a certain threshold, the node may stop ac cepting requests from these delinquent users and coordinators. And the lists are updated as cheques have been received.

4.4.5 Reward for data storage
The reward for extraction indirectly incentivizes storage of data but does so only for popular and often requested data. To encourage long-term data storage, especially if data are rarely requested, some sort of data storage incentive is needed.

This piece on Ethereum Swarm [26] describes the system of rewards for storage. Nodes enter into a data storage contract with the information owner for a period of time. The storage can be paid at the time of data storage (update) or after a certain period of time provided that the data is actually stored. In the event of a loss of data is detected during the duration of the contract, the node may be penalized, as each node requires an initial registration with a security deposit.

When you store data, the node returns a receipt that proves that it has accepted the file for storage. This receipt then allows you to check the storage situation of the associated data and, if necessary, to initiate a legal smart contract to penalize the offending node.

Since data is not static, a record with the same key can be rewritten several times. This means that not only can the original record correspond to the presented receipt, but a record with the same key that is newer to the timestamp can also correspond.

When the user initiates a data deletion operation, instead of physically deleting data, the data is replaced with a special "zero" record. The record can be physically deleted after expiration of its storage contract.

4.4.6 TiesDB: Full-text search
In simple noSql databases, a quick search with a small number of nodes is possible only with the primary key. A thorough keyword search is difficult to achieve without secondary indexes and full-text search capabilities. In this respect, TiesDB differs from noSql databases. We suggest a solution similar to Elassandra [27], which uses the local full-text indexes of ElasticSearch [28] on each node of the distributed noSql Cassandra database. Full-text queries are sent by the coordinator (see 4.4.4) to all nodes, to be mixed and returned to the client. Since additional indexes are created locally and independently on each node, Byzantine Generals’ Problem is no longer a concern here.

4.4.7 Conclusion
Built according to the above principles TiesDB solves the problem of fast public data storage for decentralized applications, which need to perform advanced searches on the stored data. This is a unique solution by the moment. TiesDB is public and can be used by any decentralized application on Ethereum. In the future TiesDB can be ported to any blockchain with Turing-complete smart contracts.

4.5 Cjdns and Hyperboria network
To solve anonymity and privacy requirement, we use Hyperboria network. Cjdns (Caleb James Delisle Network Suite) is a networking protocol and reference implementation, founded on the idea that networks should be easy to set up, protocols should scale smoothly, and security should be ubiquitous. Cjdns' project page boasts that it implements "an encrypted IPv6 network using public-key cryptography for address allocation and a distributed hash table for routing." Essentially, the application creates a tunnel interface on a host computer that acts as any other network interface and is powerful in that it allows any existing services you might want to face a network to run as long as that service is already compatible with IPv6.

All traffic over Hyperboria is encrypted end-to-end, stopping eavesdroppers operating rogue nodes. Every node on the network receives a unique IPv6 address, which is derived from that node's public key after the public/private keypair is generated. This eliminates the need for additional encryption configuration and creates an environment with enough IP addresses for substantial network expansion. As the network grows in size, the quality of routing also improves. With more active nodes, the number of potential routes increases to both mitigate failure (think of “malicious generals”) and optimize the quickest path from sender to receiver. Overall, Cjdns is not anonymous, nor is it intended to be. Rather, users use pseudonyms to hide their identities. To better conceal your identity, you can periodically change pseudonyms to make it unclear whether the requests come from one or several sources. Advantages of the Hyperboria mesh network: It is agnostic towards how the host connects to peers. Meaning, it doesn't matter much if the peer we need to connect to is over the Internet or at a physical access point. It is encrypted end-to-end, stopping eavesdroppers operating rogue nodes. Every node on the network receives a unique IPv6 address. This eliminates the need for additional encryption configuration and creates an environment with enough IP addresses for substantial network expansion. The IPv6 addresses assigned to the nodes are not related to their location, which makes it impossible to know the physical location of the IP node. High processing power.

Disadvantages of the Hyperboria mesh network:
The communicating nodes only know each other's IP, not those of other nodes with which they are not directly connected to. Traffic is conducted via the shortest path, so all intermediate nodes know which nodes communicate but do not know what, and where they are.

The first drawback can be circumvented by the following:
A node connected to a network communicates with tunnels only with trusted nodes, if any exist. Hyperboria's own intermediate node is created, and the node is linked by the tunnel to the system. Instead of your own site, you can use a trusted one, if one exists. Ties.Network users can use this method to connect to the network.

The second drawback can be reduced by altering the IPv6 identifier and the key pair of your own node. For intermediate nodes, passing traffic will look like it is coming from different nodes. Despite these drawbacks, Hyperboria is compatible for linking the Ties.Network nodes into a network, because it allows users to show their real IP address only to trusted nodes or to a trusted existing third-party Hyperboria node. In other words, the fact that any traffic on the network is automatically encrypted makes it unnecessary to connect nodes through direct tunnels. At the same time, the connection speed remains high, and the platform gives you the security to publish IPv6 node addresses for connecting clients and for load balancing. Users who want anonymity can benefit from additional connectivity to the nodes where some of the nodes are published as TOR Hidden Service and access to them is only achieved through TOR. For greater anonymity, you can use TOR with the VPN. Thus, the anonymity of the platform is realized by placing it in Hyperboria, and privacy is provided by mandatory encryption of all traffic, regardless of overlay services. Discerning clients can use TOR + VPN for connection with nodes.

5. Self-organization and motivation

5.1 Platform revenue sources
Profits come from the following sources:
Advertising
Escrow tax
Currency exchange
Income for nodes comes from the following:
Placing content on the node server Retrieving content from the node server

Users must pay for storing their data on the database servers. That allows the network to sustain itself by making its support profitable. It also prevents flooding the network with garbage or malicious data. But such a model of networking is not very popular at the moment. For example, Jim (hypothetical person) signs up on Ties.Network. Before he can do anything, he needs to place a deposit on a smart contract "chequebook." That is his paid registration. For ordinary social networks, where users just have fun, such a step would have meant the end of our network - why pay for something you can get free somewhere else? Since Ties.Network is different in that it earns you money, we feel justified in asking for an initial payment and commissions down the line to help us continue offering you this service. Unlike centralized competitors who get their revenues from advertising or from using freemium models, Ties.Network belongs to the community, so its revenues must be spent on developing and maintaining it. One of the ways that revenues will be used will be for paying moderators and for platform maintenance. Thus, the profit of the project will be distributed to pay for key individuals who support the project. These are: Content moderator (who has the authority to delete content and ban users).

“Super-moderator” (who investigates collusion between nodes and participants, manages the budget, and rejects, or fires, participants). Moderators (who arbitrate disputes).
Technical positions that include Developers (who develop software for Ties.Network).
Ordinary users (covering fair user expenses)

The platform will cover the users’ expenses of their fair use of the platform making it eventually free to use. Fairness of platform use will be observed by budget Super-moderators.

5.2 Platform roles
Social roles:
Content moderator (individuals given special authority to enforce the rules on the platform and to regulate, delete, or ban content) Budget defense super-moderator (this moderator investigates collusion between nodes and users, banning nodes and users if necessary) Judges (settling disputes between users) Ordinary users

Technical role:
Developer (develops software for Ties.Network)

5.3 Referral system
We propose a referral system to motivate individuals to join Ties.Network and affiliate initial investment. An already registered member of the network invites another participant through an alternative channel, giving them a special invitation code. A new participant enters with this code, while a part of the money from the inviter is immediately transferred to the deposit, that is, a new user can start using the system immediately, without any initial investment. At the end of the reporting period, the cost of invitations and payment for data storage can be offset from the profit of the project. For this system to work, the budget is managed by the budget defence super-moderators who must only use coins set aside for this purpose.

6. TIE tokens
TIE tokens are the digital currency used by members on the Ties.Network platform.

6.1 Operations with TIE tokens
Purchase and sale of tokens is conducted via the internal platform exchange or via an outside exchange which lists TIE tokens.
At registration the user sends a participation fee to the system, which is then refunded out of the platform budget.
All deals transacted over the platform are paid for with TIE tokens (which can be converted into other cryptocurrencies (e.g., BTC, ETH, or Ripple) and into fiat currency).

7. Conclusion

This paper reviewed the proposal of Ties.Network, a platform for business and social networking transactions. The platform is a publicly distributed system of self-motivated servers that serve a common purpose. The paper also outlines the architecture and key interfaces of TiesDB. These include: that it is a public distributed noSql database with powerful processing speed, that it supports a secondary index and full-text search capacity, and that it can be used in conjunction with any blockchain that supports smart contracts.

8. References

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